Go to Top


Latest News

Bugs Wanted

By Tarki Heath

An ornamental plant is clogging our wetlands and threatens to create significant impact to hunters, anglers and recreational users. Fortunately, little beetles and weevils have been munching their way across the United States in search of their favorite food: Lythrum salicaria L., commonly called, purple loosestrife. This well-known, harmful, invasive plant in North America is difficult to control. But after years of research, there are currently two leaf-eating beetles, Galerucella pusilla and Galerucella calmariensis, one flower and seed head eating weevil, Nanophyes marmoratus and the root damaging weevil, Hylobius transversovittatus, that have proven to be safe

Read More

Invasive Species Workshop

Last October, several members of C-OFOKLA attended the 6th Annual Invasive Species Workshop at Alverna Heights. The event was co-sponsored by SUNY- ESF, Cornell Cooperative Extension, NYS Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation and C-OFOKLA.

Invasive species, particularly aquatic invasive species (AIS), are a serious threat to our waterways and have prompted the New York legislature into action. For example, new legislation prohibits boaters from launching without taking reasonable precautions to prevent the spread of AIS.

The conference featured presentations on hydrilla from Scott Kishbaugh of DEC, a brief history of AIS management at Otsego Lake by

Read More

What is a Kettle Lake?

C-OFOKLA (Click to Enlarge)

C-OFOKLA (Click to Enlarge)

Onondaga and Cortland Counties, are unique and beautiful regions in central New York. One of the defining characteristics is the presence of several kettle-hole or kettle lakes. 

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the area was formed by the advancing and retreating of glacial ice during the last glacial period in North America.  To the west of us, the same glacial process formed the Finger Lakes. The process here, however, caused smaller holes to be formed when huge chunks of ice broke off the glacier. These holes, or “kettles” were then buried by till [1] as the glacier receded. When these ice chunks melted, the depression remained.

Each kettle lake has its own unique properties. Some have natural or created outlets, while others are landlocked. All of these lakes are, however, connected to the surficial aquifer. A surficial aquifer is generally defined by the USGS, as an “unconfined, shallow aquifer system, recharged by rainfall and leakage from surface water bodies.”

The glaciers also formed the Valley Heads Moraine, an area of sand and gravel deposited when the retreating ice paused. The moraine runs east to west and separates the Tully Valley to the north from the Tioughnioga Valley to the south. This moraine also forms the surface water divide for the St. Lawrence River drainage (north) and the Susquehanna River drainage (south).[2]

[1] sediment of various particle sizes deposited by the direct action of ice

[2] Information from USGS